Australia’s Flags and National Emblems of Australia

Australia’s flags

Australia has three official flags: the Australian National Flag, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag. Each state of territory also has its own flag.

The Australian National Flag

The Australian National Flag is blue, white and red. It has three important parts:

  • The flag of Great Britain, known as the Union Jack, is in the top left corner. The flag represents our history of British settlement.
  • The Commonwealth Star is under the Union Jack. This star has seven points, one point for each of the six states and one for the territories.
  • The Southern Cross, on the right, is a group of stars we see in the southern sky.

Flag of Australia

The Australian Aboriginal Flag

The Australian Aboriginal Flag is black, red and yellow. It has three important parts, and the most common interpretation of the colours is:

  • The top half is black and represents the Aboriginal people of Australia.
  • The bottom half is red and represents the earth and a spiritual relation to the land.
  • The yellow circle represents the sun.

Australian Aboriginal Flag

The Torres Strait Islander Flag

The Torres Strait Islander Flag is green, blue, black and white.

  • The green stripes represent the land.
  • The blue panel in the centre represents the sea.
  • The black lines represent the Torres Strait Islander people.
  • The white dancer’s headdress in the centre is a symbol for all Torres Strait Islanders.
  • The points of the white star represent the island groups in the Torres Strait.
  • The colour white is a symbol of peace.

Flag of the Torres Strait Islanders

Commonwealth Coat of Arms

The Commonwealth Coat of Arms is the official symbol of the Commonwealth of Australia. It represents our national unity. It identifies the authority and property of the Commonwealth of Australia.

  • The shield in the centre represents the six stated and federation.
  • A kangaroo and an emu support the shield on each side. Kangaroos are native Australian animals and emus are native Australian birds.
  • A gold Commonwealth Star sits above the shield.
  • The background is the golden wattle, Australia’s national flower.

Australian Coat of Arms

Australia’s national flower

Australia’s national flower is the golden wattle. This small tree grows mainly in the south-eastern Australia. It has bright green leaves and many golden yellow flowers in spring. Each of the states and territories of Australia also has its own floral emblem.

Acacia pycnantha - Golden Wattle

Australia’s national colours

Australia’s national colours are green and gold, the colours of the golden wattle. The uniforms of our national sports teams are usually green and gold.

Australia national colours

Australia’s national gemstone

The opal is Australia’s national gemstone. In Aboriginal legend, a rainbow touched the earth and created the colours of the opal.

Australia’s national gemstone opal

Australia’s national anthem

‘Advance Australia Fair’ is Australia’s national anthem. It is sung on occasions of national importance. It is also sung at Australian citizenship ceremonies, major sporting events and at school. It unites the nation and is a public expression of the joy and pride in being Australian.

Advance Australia Fair

Australians all let us rejoice,

For we are one and free;

We’ve golden soil and wealth for toil;

Our home is girt by sea;

Our land abounds in nature’s gifts

Of beauty rich and rare;

In history’s page, let every stage

Advance Australia Fair.

In joyful strains then let us sing,

Advance Australia Fair.


Beneath our radiant Southern Cross

We’ll toil with hearts and hands;

To make this Commonwealth of ours

Renowned of all the lands;

For those who’ve come across the seas

We’ve boundless plains to share;

With courage let us all combine

To Advance Australia Fair.

In joyful strains then let us sing,

Advance Australia Fair.

Australian Citizenship ( Published by the
Australian Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Creative Commons BY 2.5 Aus.